*Ettore Casari*

- Published in print:
- 2016
- Published Online:
- January 2017
- ISBN:
- 9780198788294
- eISBN:
- 9780191830228
- Item type:
- book

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198788294.001.0001
- Subject:
- Mathematics, Logic / Computer Science / Mathematical Philosophy

A starting point of Bolzano’s logical reflection was the conviction that among truths there is a connection, according to which some truths are grounds of others, and these in turn are consequences ...
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A starting point of Bolzano’s logical reflection was the conviction that among truths there is a connection, according to which some truths are grounds of others, and these in turn are consequences of the former, and that such a connection is objective, i.e. subsisting independently of every cognitive activity of the subject. In the attempt to account for the distinction between subjective and objective levels of knowledge, Bolzano gradually gained the conviction that the reference of the subject to the object is mediated by a realm of entities without existence that, recalling the Stoic lectà, are here called ‘lectological’. Moreover, of the two main ways through which that reference takes place—psychic activity and linguistic activity—Bolzano favoured the first and traced back to it the problems of the second; i.e. he considered those intermediate entities first as possible content of psychic phenomena and only subordinately, on the basis of a complex theory of signs, as meanings of linguistic phenomena. This book follows this schema and treats, in great detail, first, lectological entities (ideas and propositions in themselves), second, cognitive psychic phenomena (subjective ideas and judgements), and, finally, linguistic phenomena. Moreover, it tries to bring to light the extraordinary systematic character of Bolzano’s logical thought and it does this showing that the main logical ideas developed principally in the first three parts of the Theory of Science, published in 1837, can be effortlessly formally presented within the well-known Hilbertian epsilon-calculus.Less

A starting point of Bolzano’s logical reflection was the conviction that among truths there is a connection, according to which some truths are grounds of others, and these in turn are consequences of the former, and that such a connection is objective, i.e. subsisting independently of every cognitive activity of the subject. In the attempt to account for the distinction between subjective and objective levels of knowledge, Bolzano gradually gained the conviction that the reference of the subject to the object is mediated by a realm of entities without existence that, recalling the Stoic lectà, are here called ‘lectological’. Moreover, of the two main ways through which that reference takes place—psychic activity and linguistic activity—Bolzano favoured the first and traced back to it the problems of the second; i.e. he considered those intermediate entities first as possible content of psychic phenomena and only subordinately, on the basis of a complex theory of signs, as meanings of linguistic phenomena. This book follows this schema and treats, in great detail, first, lectological entities (ideas and propositions in themselves), second, cognitive psychic phenomena (subjective ideas and judgements), and, finally, linguistic phenomena. Moreover, it tries to bring to light the extraordinary systematic character of Bolzano’s logical thought and it does this showing that the main logical ideas developed principally in the first three parts of the *Theory of Science*, published in 1837, can be effortlessly formally presented within the well-known Hilbertian epsilon-calculus.

*Jon Williamson*

- Published in print:
- 2017
- Published Online:
- March 2017
- ISBN:
- 9780199666478
- eISBN:
- 9780191749292
- Item type:
- book

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199666478.001.0001
- Subject:
- Mathematics, Logic / Computer Science / Mathematical Philosophy

Inductive logic (also known as confirmation theory) seeks to determine the extent to which the premisses of an argument entail its conclusion. This book offers an introduction to the field of ...
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Inductive logic (also known as confirmation theory) seeks to determine the extent to which the premisses of an argument entail its conclusion. This book offers an introduction to the field of inductive logic and develops a new Bayesian inductive logic. Chapter 1 introduces perhaps the simplest and most natural account of inductive logic, classical inductive logic, which is attributable to Ludwig Wittgenstein. Classical inductive logic is seen to fail in a crucial way, so there is a need to develop more sophisticated inductive logics. Chapter 2 presents enough logic and probability theory for the reader to begin to study inductive logic, while Chapter 3 introduces the ways in which logic and probability can be combined in an inductive logic. Chapter 4 analyses the most influential approach to inductive logic, due to W.E. Johnson and Rudolf Carnap. Again, this logic is seen to be inadequate. Chapter 5 shows how an alternative approach to inductive logic follows naturally from the philosophical theory of objective Bayesian epistemology. This approach preserves the inferences that classical inductive logic gets right (Chapter 6). On the other hand, it also offers a way out of the problems that beset classical inductive logic (Chapter 7). Chapter 8 defends the approach by tackling several key criticisms that are often levelled at inductive logic. Chapter 9 presents a formal justification of the version of objective Bayesianism which underpins the approach. Chapter 10 explains what has been achieved and poses some open questions.Less

Inductive logic (also known as confirmation theory) seeks to determine the extent to which the premisses of an argument entail its conclusion. This book offers an introduction to the field of inductive logic and develops a new Bayesian inductive logic. Chapter 1 introduces perhaps the simplest and most natural account of inductive logic, classical inductive logic, which is attributable to Ludwig Wittgenstein. Classical inductive logic is seen to fail in a crucial way, so there is a need to develop more sophisticated inductive logics. Chapter 2 presents enough logic and probability theory for the reader to begin to study inductive logic, while Chapter 3 introduces the ways in which logic and probability can be combined in an inductive logic. Chapter 4 analyses the most influential approach to inductive logic, due to W.E. Johnson and Rudolf Carnap. Again, this logic is seen to be inadequate. Chapter 5 shows how an alternative approach to inductive logic follows naturally from the philosophical theory of objective Bayesian epistemology. This approach preserves the inferences that classical inductive logic gets right (Chapter 6). On the other hand, it also offers a way out of the problems that beset classical inductive logic (Chapter 7). Chapter 8 defends the approach by tackling several key criticisms that are often levelled at inductive logic. Chapter 9 presents a formal justification of the version of objective Bayesianism which underpins the approach. Chapter 10 explains what has been achieved and poses some open questions.

*Fon-Che Liu*

- Published in print:
- 2016
- Published Online:
- January 2017
- ISBN:
- 9780198790426
- eISBN:
- 9780191831676
- Item type:
- book

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198790426.001.0001
- Subject:
- Mathematics, Analysis

Real analysis in its modern aspect is presented concisely in this text for the beginning graduate student of mathematics and related disciplines to have a solid grounding in the general theory of ...
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Real analysis in its modern aspect is presented concisely in this text for the beginning graduate student of mathematics and related disciplines to have a solid grounding in the general theory of measure and to build helpful insights for effectively applying the general principles of real analysis to concrete problems. After an introductory chapter, a compact but precise treatment of general measure and integration is undertaken to provide the reader with an overall view of the general theory before delving into special measures. The universality of the method of outer measure in the construction of measures is emphasized, because it provides a unified way of looking for useful regularity properties of measures. The chapter on functions of real variables is the core of the book; it treats properties of functions that are not only basic for understanding the general features of functions but also relevant for the study of those function spaces which are important when application of functional analytical methods is in question. The chapter on basic principles of functional analysis and that on the Fourier integral reveal the intimate interplay between functional analysis and real analysis. Applications of many of the topics discussed are included; these contain explorations toward probability theory and partial differential equations.Less

Real analysis in its modern aspect is presented concisely in this text for the beginning graduate student of mathematics and related disciplines to have a solid grounding in the general theory of measure and to build helpful insights for effectively applying the general principles of real analysis to concrete problems. After an introductory chapter, a compact but precise treatment of general measure and integration is undertaken to provide the reader with an overall view of the general theory before delving into special measures. The universality of the method of outer measure in the construction of measures is emphasized, because it provides a unified way of looking for useful regularity properties of measures. The chapter on functions of real variables is the core of the book; it treats properties of functions that are not only basic for understanding the general features of functions but also relevant for the study of those function spaces which are important when application of functional analytical methods is in question. The chapter on basic principles of functional analysis and that on the Fourier integral reveal the intimate interplay between functional analysis and real analysis. Applications of many of the topics discussed are included; these contain explorations toward probability theory and partial differential equations.